Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation in the land transport sector in the ASEAN region (in short: Transport and Climate Change; TCC)

Transport and Climate Change (TCC)

TCC: 2012-2018
EU-SWITCH: 2016-2018
SMMR: 2016-2018 (in preparation)


Transport, sustainability and climate change in the ASEAN region

A certain level of mobility creates benefits for economic and social development; however the current trends in the transport sector in Asia are unsustainable. With 310 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, transport in ASEAN is a significant contributor to global CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the transport sector has the second highest share of total final energy consumption in the ASEAN region. Congestion, road safety and air pollution – responsible for 7 million premature deaths globally – are among the key issues related to transport. Sustainable transport policies must not only focus on passenger cars, but also consider freight vehicles and motorcycles as well.

There are large synergies between local and global sustainability, particularly when local pollutants such as black carbon – the 2nd largest contributor to climate change after CO2 – are considered. However, the good news is that there are multiple options and a vast potential to increase energy efficiency and to reduce emissions in the land transport sector of ASEAN Member States (AMS).

Nevertheless, more needs to be done to fully capture these opportunities. In light of this, ASEAN’s Kuala Lumpur Transport Strategic Plan 2016-2025 includes sustainable transport actions designed to help reduce transport’s environmental footprint.


Transport and Climate Change (TCC)

Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation in the Land Transport Sector (TCC), aims to reduce greenhouse gases through increasing energy efficiency in five ASEAN countries.

The project thus focuses on:

•   Supporting the development and alignment of an ASEAN transport strategy with national policies in ASEAN Member States.

•   Cooperating with the ASEAN Secretariat and engaging partner countries to implement sustainable transport measures and improve data and MRV systems.

•   Providing capacity building, fostering knowledge-sharing and building up regional expert networks in the ASEAN region.

The project work is based on three topical pillars:

•   Fuel efficiency policies and measures;

•   Two- and three-wheelers, including electrification; and

•   Green freight and logistics

In order to achieve this, the project works together with relevant policymakers in the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia, as well as the ASEAN Secretariat including relevant Working Groups such as the ASEAN Working Group on Climate Change (AWGCC), the Land Transport Working Group (LTWG), and the Transport Facilitation Working Group (TFWG).


Some of the results achieved so far:

ASEAN Level: Integrating sustainable transport in the regional transport strategy (Kuala Lumpur Transport Strategic Action Plan; 2016-2025):

Engaging with the ASEAN Land Transport Working Group (LTWG) and the Transport Facilitation Working Group (TFWG) made it possible to include fuel efficiency policies and green freight and logistics as issues in the regional strategy on sustainable transport, the Kuala Lumpur Transport Strategic Action Plan (KLTSP; 2016-2025).

At the ASEAN regional level, the project also organises and facilitates regional exchange on transport-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs).


National Level: Linking national strategies to the KLTSP

As of July 2016, stocktaking reports have been developed and submitted in all five partner countries (Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Malaysia). These reports help identify policy gaps in order to move forward on implementing the regional transport strategy, the Kuala Lumpur Strategic Transport Action Plan (KLTSP; 2016-2025), on a national level.


In Thailand, the project supported the development of the “People-centred Urban Mobility NAMA, which is now seeking international funding to support its implementation. This project focuses on shift, improve and fuel switch measures that create climate and people-friendly mobility systems. Important objectives are: technology innovation for a transformation of the bus fleet to low-carbon buses and a system change to low-carbon and intermodal mobility by integration of bus and non-motorised transport with rail-based urban transport. The concept note is finalised and will be submitted to the UNFCCC NAMA registry within 2016.

In Vietnam, the project is supporting the Ministries of Transport and Environment in the identification and prioritisation of options for NAMAs in the transport sector.

In Malaysia, the development of a NAMA proposal on energy-efficient two-wheelers was supported, and a workshop on (Regional) Sustainable Transport Indictors is being planned.

In the Philippines and Indonesia, the project works together with other initiatives on MRV and NAMA development.

Capacity Building

Workshops on fuel economy standards and policies as well as on green freight and logistics have been conducted in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam. These workshops help build up regional expert databases and foster knowledge sharing.

The Indonesian Ministry of Transportation aims to incorporate environmental concerns into its five-year plan and is drafting a white paper – a collection of proposals and options – on environmentally sound freight transport. In order to realise green transport projects, the Department of Transportation of the Philippines is improving the basic rules and management of the Special Vehicle Pollution Control Fund.

MRV systems, indicators, and data

Indonesia has improved its methods of monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions from transport and is drawing up an action plan to make further improvements to the system. Thailand is developing a Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) system for transport as well. In August 2016, a workshop on (regional) sustainable transport indicators will be held in Malaysia to promote MRV systems implementation.


TCC works in close collaboration with these two projects:

Sustainable Freight and Logistics in the Greater Mekong Sub-region

Financed by the EU and BMZ, the Sustainable Freight and Logistics in the Greater Mekong Sub-region project (in short: EU-SWITCH project) has been launched in 2016 and will be running until the end of 2018. Operating in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam, the project aims to cooperate with small- and medium-sized enterprises in the freight sector. With a focus on 500 SMEs, the project aims to improve their fuel efficiency, ease access to green financing, improve the handling of dangerous goods, and promote labelling, green freight action plans and carbon footprinting.

Sustainable Mobility in Metropolitan Regions

With the same project duration (2016 – 2018), SMMR is still in the preparation phase. Once approved, activities will include trainings based on a training needs assessment (TNA), university exchange programmes, study tours, peer reviews, and the development of regional strategies.